Viral Hepatitis

Viral hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver caused by one of the 5 hepatitis viruses: A, B, C, D and E. These viruses are transmitted in different ways: Hepatitis A and E - through contaminated food and water; hepatitis B through unsafe blood and other body fluids; Hepatitis C - mainly through infected blood and Hepatitis D - as an additional infection in the presence of Hepatitis B.

All these viruses cause acute hepatitis, which is characterized by fatigue, loss of appetite, fever and jaundice. Most people recover completely, but among a small proportion of people, acute hepatitis can lead to death. In addition, hepatitis B and C infections can become chronic and lead to the development of cirrhosis and liver cancer. An estimated 1.4 million people die from various forms of viral hepatitis every year.

Prevalence of infection

Hepatitis infections are common worldwide. In many countries, prevalence data are not available; however, it is estimated that half a billion people are chronically infected with the hepatitis B or C virus. It is estimated that such chronic infections result in 57% of cases of cirrhosis and 78% of cases of primary liver cancer.

Prevention and treatment

Hepatitis infection can be prevented by providing safe food and water (hepatitis A and E), using vaccines (hepatitis A, B and E), checking donor blood, providing sterile injection equipment and infection control (hepatitis B and C). However, prevention and awareness-raising efforts alone are not enough. Chronic hepatitis B and C infections can be treated, but most people, especially in low- and middle-income countries, do not have access to treatment because of the lack of screening and clinical services, and also because of the high prices of certain drugs for hepatitis.


Viral hepatitis Parenteral viral hepatitis B and C are characterized by severe and chronic forms - these are terrible diseases that lead to disability and death over time. Today, viral hepatitis is spreading faster than AIDS. Given the way the virus gets infected, the problem of hepatitis is relevant to everyone.

What you need to know everyone about viral hepatitis.

There are enteric viral hepatitis (HAV and HBE), belonging to the group of intestinal infections and parenteral viral hepatitis (HBV, HCV, IOP, etc.) - the group of "blood infections".

Viral hepatitis A (HAV)

With HAV - it is necessary to follow the recommendations of the doctor, because it can give complications (diseases of the gallbladder and ducts). Hepatitis A virus affects only humans. The virus mainly enters the environment with feces, the main route of infection is fecal-oral, so the CAA is called “dirty hands disease”.

Infection occurs through water, dishes, toys, personal hygiene items and other items used by the patient. Hepatitis A virus is very resistant to environmental influences: insensitive to low and high temperatures (heating to 60 ° C withstands 30 minutes, dies at 5 ° C after 5 minutes, boils instantly), is resistant to drying, to the action of many chemicals and ultraviolet radiation.

For HAV, there is an autumn-winter seasonality of the disease.

Failure to follow the most basic rules of hygiene opens up a direct route for the virus to enter the body.

Viral hepatitis A virus that enters a person through the mouth is absorbed into the blood and enters the liver. Here he begins to multiply rapidly. An inflammatory reaction begins in the liver tissue, the flow of bile is disturbed, and the size of the liver increases. Bile and bilirubin enter the bloodstream, causing the skin and mucous membranes to turn yellow.

If you suspect viral hepatitis (jaundice, dark urine, feces of light color, a sharp decrease in appetite, pain in the right hypochondrium), you should consult a doctor.

As a rule, immediate hospitalization is required for viral hepatitis.

After recovery, observation by a gastroenterologist or a hepatologist is recommended. An important role in the treatment is played by a dietitian.

Diet is very important in the treatment of hepatitis. Food should be taken in divided portions 4-5 times a day. Excluded from the diet: fried, fatty and spicy dishes, seasonings, sauces, gravy, nuts, mushrooms, sausages, smoked foods, chocolate, halva, cakes, ice cream, eggs. Vegetarian soups, boiled or steamed dishes, cereals (preferably oatmeal), potatoes, dairy products, lean meats and fish, fresh fruits, juices, fruit drinks, fruit drinks are allowed. Bread is better than white, a little dried up. Mineral non-carbonated water is allowed to use after recovery. The diet should be followed at least 6 months after suffering hepatitis.

Viral hepatitis

Viral hepatitis The main prevention of hepatitis A disease is the observance of basic hygiene rules, which everyone seems to know, but to which not all follow:

Thoroughly wash your hands with running water and soap after using the toilet, before eating, after work, after the street.

Wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly, even from your vegetable garden.

Being in nature or in the country, do not drink unboiled water.

Teach children from an early age to follow personal hygiene.

Viral hepatitis E is broadly similar to hepatitis A.

For the prevention of enteral viral hepatitis A and E, measures of a general hygienic and sanitary nature, used for the prevention and other intestinal infections, are particularly important: protection of water supply sources from pollution, constant chlorination of drinking water, sanitary control in catering establishments, public health education, etc.

Viral hepatitis B and C (HBV, HCV)

Viral hepatitis Parenteral hepatitis B and C are among the most common infections in the world. Their cunning is the development of a chronic inflammatory process in the liver, which can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer. The age group of risk is age 18-39 years.

Hepatitis B and C viruses are transmitted through negligible amounts of infected blood. The infecting dose is very small - a few viral particles, and for them to get into the bloodstream enough abrasions, scratches, prick or cut. Hepatitis B virus is contained not only in the blood, but also in semen, vaginal secretions, saliva, breast milk and other biological fluids of a patient or virus carrier.

Infection can occur when performing piercing, tattoo, manicure, pedicure, piercing the ears with poorly treated instruments.

Viral Hepatitis Items and tools on which the virus is located may look clean, without blood residue. But on the surface untreated with disinfectants, viruses can last from several hours to several weeks.

In recent years there has been a sharp increase in the number of patients with PVH, the infection of which occurred when drugs were injected intravenously. Possible infection of the fetus from the mother-virus carrier during childbirth.

Parenteral hepatitis B and C can not be infected:

  • When coughing and sneezing.
  • When shaking hands.
  • With hugs and kisses.
  • When consuming a common food or drink.

Infection with PVH can pass unnoticed by humans, often the disease is asymptomatic, with good general well-being. It is possible to detect that a person is infected by chance with a specialized laboratory examination of blood for antigens of the hepatitis B virus or antibodies to the hepatitis C virus.

If you are suspected of being infected with the hepatitis virus, you should immediately consult a doctor.

Viral hepatitis Do not delay the disease to the stage when the treatment will be difficult, long and expensive. The current level of diagnosis and treatment allows to identify and fight viral hepatitis. The timely detection of parenteral hepatitis and their effective treatment is the key to recovery and the absence of the development of complications.

Prevention of parenteral hepatitis:

  • Do not engage in promiscuous sex and do not forget to use a condom.
  • Do not use drugs, especially injection drugs.
  • Do not do piercings and tattoos in questionable places.
  • Do not forget to always follow the rules of personal hygiene.

Hepatitis B can be prevented by vaccination.

Immunization against hepatitis B is included in the National Immunization Schedule of the Republic of Kazakhstan and is given to children in the first year of life (vaccination 1-4 days of life with revaccination at 2 months and 4 months).

Vaccines for the prevention of viral hepatitis C no.